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Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2016 Jul;43(8):1425-31. doi: 10.1007/s00259-015-3264-6. Epub 2015 Dec 3.

Selective internal radiation therapy in patients with progressive neuroendocrine liver metastases.

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Department of Radiology, Uppsala University Hospital, 751 85, Uppsala, Sweden.
Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Nuclear Medicine and PET, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
Department of Radiology, Uppsala University Hospital, 751 85, Uppsala, Sweden.
Department of Medical Sciences, Division of Endocrine Oncology, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.



To evaluate the safety and efficacy of selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) in patients with unresectable liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumours (NETLMs).


This retrospective study included 40 patients with progressive NETLMs (22 women, 18 men, mean age 61.6 years) who underwent SIRT with (90)Y-labelled resin microspheres. Tumour response was evaluated according to the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST) on CT or MR images. Medical records were reviewed.


In the 40 patients, 54 evaluable SIRT procedures were performed, 33 to the right liver lobe (mean activity 1.31 GBq), 13 to the left lobe (mean activity 0.85 GBq), and 8 to both lobes (mean activity 1.61 GBq). Late follow-up imaging (mean 20 months) was performed after 44 of the treatments. Objective tumour response and disease control rates were 54 % (29 of 54 treatments) and 94 % (51 treatments), respectively, at the early follow-up examination (mean 3 months) and 34 % (15 treatments) and 57 % (25 treatments), respectively at the late follow-up examination. Mean overall survival from the first SIRT was 34,8 months and survival rates at 1, 2, 3 and 5 years were 76 %, 59 %, 52 % and 35 % respectively. Adverse effects were generally mild and easily manageable, except in one patient who died from radiation-induced liver failure. Of the 45 patients, 18 (45 %) had received peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) prior to SIRT.


SIRT with (90)Y-labelled resin microspheres is a safe and effective treatment for patients with progressive NETLM, and also for those who have received prior PRRT.


Neuroendocrine liver metastases; Selective internal radiation therapy; Transarterial; Yttrium

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