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PLoS One. 2015 Dec 2;10(12):e0143068. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0143068. eCollection 2015.

Aquaporin 5 Interacts with Fluoride and Possibly Protects against Caries.

Author information

1
Department of Oral Biology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States of America.
2
ECLAMC (Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations) at CEMIC (Center for Medical Education and Clinical Research), Buenos Aires, Argentina.
3
ECLAMC at Hospital de Area El Bolson, El Bolson, RN, Argentina.
4
Bauru School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, Bauru, SP, Brazil.
5
Department of Pedodontics, Medipol Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.
6
Department of Pedodontics, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.
7
Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Yeditepe University, Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul, Turkey.
8
Dental School, Clinical Research Unit, Federal Fluminense University - UFF, Niterói, RJ, Brazil.
9
Biology Institute, Federal Fluminense University - UFF, Niterói, RJ, Brazil.
10
Department of Endodontics, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States of America.
11
Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Marmara University, Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul, Turkey.
12
National Institute of Metrology (INMETRO), Niterói, RJ, Brazil.
13
ECLAMC at INAGEMP-CNPq (National Institute of Population Medical Genetics) at Department of Genetics, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
14
ECLAMC at INAGEMP-CNPq (National Institute of Population Medical Genetics) at Department of Genetics, Institute of Biology, Center of Health Sciences, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Abstract

Aquaporins (AQP) are water channel proteins and the genes coding for AQP2, AQP5, and AQP6 are clustered in 12q13. Since AQP5 is expressed in serous acinar cells of salivary glands, we investigated its involvement in caries. DNA samples from 1,383 individuals from six groups were studied. Genotypes of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms covering the aquaporin locus were tested for association with caries experience. Interaction with genes involved in enamel formation was tested. The association between enamel microhardness at baseline, after creation of artificial caries lesion, and after exposure to fluoride and the genetic markers in AQP5 was tested. Finally, AQP5 expression in human whole saliva, after exposure to fluoride in a mammary gland cell line, which is known to express AQP5, and in Wistar rats was also verified. Nominal associations were found between caries experience and markers in the AQP5 locus. Since these associations suggested that AQP5 may be inhibited by levels of fluoride in the drinking water that cause fluorosis, we showed that fluoride levels above optimal levels change AQP5 expression in humans, cell lines, and rats. We have shown that AQP5 is involved in the pathogenesis of caries and likely interacts with fluoride.

PMID:
26630491
PMCID:
PMC4668048
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0143068
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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