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Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2016 Feb;30:52-60. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2015.10.030. Epub 2015 Nov 28.

Metabolic control of methylation and acetylation.

Author information

1
Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA; Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA.
2
Department of Cancer Biology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
3
Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA; Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA. Electronic address: joshr@genomics.princeton.edu.

Abstract

Methylation and acetylation of DNA and histone proteins are the chemical basis for epigenetics. From bacteria to humans, methylation and acetylation are sensitive to cellular metabolic status. Modification rates depend on the availability of one-carbon and two-carbon substrates (S-adenosylmethionine, acetyl-CoA, and in bacteria also acetyl-phosphate). In addition, they are sensitive to demodification enzyme cofactors (α-ketoglutarate, NAD(+)) and structural analog metabolites that function as epigenetic enzyme inhibitors (e.g., S-adenosylhomocysteine, 2-hydroxyglutarate). Methylation and acetylation likely initially evolved to tailor protein activities in microbes to their metabolic milieu. While the extracellular environment of mammals is more tightly controlled, the combined impact of nutrient abundance and metabolic enzyme expression impacts epigenetics in mammals sufficiently to drive important biological outcomes such as stem cell fate and cancer.

PMID:
26629854
PMCID:
PMC4731252
DOI:
10.1016/j.cbpa.2015.10.030
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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