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Surg Neurol Int. 2015 Nov 16;6:171. doi: 10.4103/2152-7806.169561. eCollection 2015.

A comprehensive review of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

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Department of Medicine, San Juan Bautista School of Medicine, Caguas, USA.
Neurologist, Caribbean Neurological Center, Caguas, USA.


Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a late-onset fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons with an incidence of about 1/100,000. Most ALS cases are sporadic, but 5-10% of the cases are familial ALS. Both sporadic and familial ALS (FALS) are associated with degeneration of cortical and spinal motor neurons. The etiology of ALS remains unknown. However, mutations of superoxide dismutase 1 have been known as the most common cause of FALS. In this study, we provide a comprehensive review of ALS. We cover all aspects of the disease including epidemiology, comorbidities, environmental risk factor, molecular mechanism, genetic factors, symptoms, diagnostic, treatment, and even the available supplement and management of ALS. This will provide the reader with an advantage of receiving a broad range of information about the disease.


Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; sporadic and familial ALS; superoxide dismutase

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