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Br J Haematol. 2016 Feb;172(4):524-34. doi: 10.1111/bjh.13866. Epub 2015 Dec 2.

How I manage Evans Syndrome and AIHA cases in children.

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Clinical and Experimental Haematology Unit, Department of Haematology/Oncology, IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa, Italy.


The management of Evans Syndrome in children is challenging due to the lack of evidence-based data on treatment. Steroids, the first-choice therapy, are successful in about 80% of cases. For children who are resistant, relapse or become steroid-dependent, rituximab is considered a valid second-line treatment, with the exception of those with an underlying diagnosis of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome who may benefit from other options such as mycophenolate mofetil and sirolimus. Better knowledge of the immunological mechanisms underlying cytopenias and the availability of new immunosuppressive drugs can be helpful in the choice of more targeted therapies that would enable the reduction of the use of long-term steroid administration or other more aggressive options, such as splenectomy or stem cell transplantation. This manuscript provides an overview of the pathogenic background of the disease, and suggests a clinical approach to diagnosis and treatment with a particular focus on the management of relapsing/resistant disease.


Evans syndrome; autoimmune haemolytic anaemia; autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome; children; immune thrombocytopenia; immunosuppression

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