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Cureus. 2015 Oct 28;7(10):e367. doi: 10.7759/cureus.367.

Selective Patch Angioplasty and Intraoperative Shunting in Carotid Endarterectomy: A Single-Center Review of 141 Procedures.

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Department of Neurological Surgery, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York.



Open surgical treatment of carotid artery stenosis, namely, carotid endarterectomy (CEA), has evolved since its inception in 1953. Despite improvements in the treatment of carotid occlusive disease through technological and surgical innovations, the use of patch grafting in CEA's remains controversial. We evaluate the durability of the primary closure and the safety of selective shunting during carotid endarterectomy (CEA) as determined by intraoperative EEG and postoperative outcomes.


A consecutive series of CEA's performed by the senior author at a single academic medical center from 2001 to 2012 were reviewed. All cases were performed under continuous intraoperative electroencephalography (EEG). Patch angioplasty was used in cases where there was tortuosity of the vessel within the region of the endarterectomy and narrow vessel diameter at the distal end of the arteriotomy. Shunting was used when intraoperative EEG showed a > 50% reduction in a waveform in any lead. Patients were evaluated for restenosis via imaging or ultrasound at six months and subsequently annual follow-up.


One hundred and forty-one CEA's were performed on 132 (76 male, 56 female) patients with an average age of 71 years (range: 40-95 years). Four (3%) cases required patch angioplasty and three (2%) required intraoperative shunts. The cross-clamp time ranged from 22 to 74 minutes, and the duration increased with the use of shunts and patches. Complications were rare and included recurrent stenosis (n=2), postoperative transient ischemic attack (n=1), ischemic stroke in (n=1), temporary hypoglossal nerve weakness (n=2), temporary marginal mandibular nerve weakness (n=6), and neck hematoma (n=1).


Intraoperative EEG data suggests that primary closure and selective shunting in CEA can result in outcomes comparable with routine patch angioplasty and shunting.


angioplasty; carotid; endarterectomy; selective patch; shunting; vascular

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