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Sci Rep. 2015 Dec 1;5:17438. doi: 10.1038/srep17438.

Cardiotrophin-1 is inversely associated with obesity in non-diabetic individuals.

Hung HC1,2,3, Lu FH4,3, Wu HT4, Ou HY1,3, Yang YC4,3, Wu JS4,3, Chang CJ4,3.

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Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan.
The Institute of Basic Medical Sciences of National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
Department of Family Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan.


Cardiotrophin-1 is known to be a key regulator of energy homeostasis, as well as glucose and lipid metabolism in vivo. However, there are inconsistent results of the association between cardiotrophin-1 and obesity in humans, possibly confounded by hyperglycemia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationships among cardiotrophin-1 levels, overweight and obese individuals without diabetes in a Chinese population. The median (inter-quarter range) serum cardiotrophin-1 levels were 447.9 (230.9, 913.9), 350.6 (201.1, 666.5), and 288.1 (162.3, 572.4) pg/ml in non-diabetic subjects who were of normal weight (n = 522), overweight (n = 203), and obese (n = 93), respectively (trend test p < 0.001). Subjects who were overweight and obese had significantly lower cardiotrophin-1 levels than those with normal weight. The multivariate linear regression analyses showed that overweight (beta = -338.718, 95% CI = -552.786 ~ -124.651, p < 0.01), obese (beta = -530.275, 95% CI = -832.967 ~ -227.583, p < 0.01), and smoking (beta = -377.375, 95% CI = -654.353 ~ -100.397, p < 0.01) were negatively related to cardiotrophin-1 after adjusting for age, gender, HOMA-IR, hypertension, total cholesterol, HDL, triglyceride, eGFR, ALT, and alcohol drinking. The results of this study provided epidemiological evidence that non-diabetic subjects who were overweight or obesity had significantly lower cardiotrophin-1 concentrations than those with normal weight, and both obesity and being overweight were inversely associated with cardiotrophin-1 levels.

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