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Neurotherapeutics. 2016 Jan;13(1):226-36. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0407-1.

Improved Treatment Efficacy of Antiangiogenic Therapy when Combined with Picornavirus Vaccination in the GL261 Glioma Model.

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Neurobiology of Disease Graduate Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
Department of Neurosurgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.


The addition of antiangiogenic therapy to the standard-of-care treatment regimen for recurring glioblastoma has provided some clinical benefits while also delineating numerous caveats, prompting evaluation of the elicited alterations to the tumor microenvironment. Of critical importance, given the steadily increasing incorporation of immunotherapeutic approaches clinically, is an enhanced understanding of the interplay between angiogenic and immune response pathways within tumors. In the present study, the GL261 glioma mouse model was used to determine the effects of antiangiogenic treatment in an immune-competent host. Following weekly systemic administration of aflibercept, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor, tumor volume was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging and changes to the tumor microenvironment were determined. Treatment with aflibercept resulted in reduced tumor burden and increased survival compared with controls. Additionally, decreased vascular permeability and preservation of the integrity of tight junction proteins were observed. Treated tumors also displayed hallmarks of anti-angiogenic evasion, including marked upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor expression and increased tumor invasiveness. Aflibercept was then administered in combination with a picornavirus-based antitumor vaccine and tumor progression was evaluated. This combination therapy significantly delayed tumor progression and extended survival beyond that observed for either therapy alone. As such, this work demonstrates the efficacy of combined antiangiogenic and immunotherapy approaches for treating established gliomas and provides a foundation for further evaluation of the effects of antiangiogenic therapy in the context of endogenous or vaccine-induced inflammatory responses.


Antiangiogenic; Combination therapy; Glioma; Immunotherapy; Tumor invasiveness

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