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Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016 Mar;60(3):621-30. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201500541. Epub 2015 Dec 29.

Anti-inflammatory and anti-chemotactic effects of dietary flaxseed oil on CD8(+) T cell/adipocyte-mediated cross-talk.

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Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada.
Guelph Food Research Centre, Agriculture Agri-Food Canada, Guelph, ON, Canada.



CD8(+) T cell/adipocyte paracrine interactions represent a critical step in the development of the obese inflammatory phenotype that is disrupted by long-chain n-3 PUFA. Our objective was to determine the effect of flaxseed-derived n-3 PUFA (α-linolenic acid) on these paracrine interactions.


C57BL/6 mice were fed 3.5% flaxseed oil (FX) + 3.5% corn oil diet w/w or an isocaloric 7% corn oil w/w control diet (CON) for 3 wk. 3T3-L1 adipocytes and purified primary splenic CD8(+) T cells were cocultured at an obese cellular ratio (10% CD8(+) T cells) and LPS-stimulated (10 ng/mL mimicking obese circulating endotoxin levels) for 24 h. FX cocultures reduced (i) secreted IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), macrophage chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α), and RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) levels; (ii) activation of inflammatory transcription factors NFκB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell) p65 and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3); and (iii) RAW264.7 macrophage chemotaxis versus CON (p ≤ 0.05). Coculture of pre-inflamed adipocytes (10 ng/mL LPS, 24 h prior to CD8(+) T-cell addition) resulted in reduced secretion of IL-6, IL-1β, MCP-1, MCP-3, MIP-1β, and RANTES in FX cocultures versus CON (p ≤ 0.05).


FX exerts an anti-chemotactic and anti-inflammatory effect on CD8(+) T cell/adipocyte paracrine interactions (cross-talk), which has the potential to mitigate macrophage chemotaxis which drives components of the obese phenotype.


Adipocytes; CD8+ T cells; Flaxseed oil; Obesity; Paracrine cross-talk

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