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Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2016 Feb;27(1):237-317. doi: 10.1016/j.pmr.2015.08.005.

Malalignment Syndrome in Runners.

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Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine, University of BC, Vancouver, Canada. Electronic address:


More than 80% of runners are out of alignment. The standard back examination should include assessment of pelvic alignment. An awareness of pelvic malalignment and the the malalignment syndrome is essential to allow one to provide proper care of a runner. The 3 most common presentations usually respond to a supervised, progressive treatment program. The validity of any research into the biomechanics of running should be questioned if the study has failed to look at whether pelvic malalignment was present and whether the altered, asymmetrical biomechanical changes attributable to the malalignment itself could have affected the results of the study.


Asymmetrical forces; Back; Groin and limb pain; Malalignment syndrome; Manual therapy; Pelvic malalignment; Problems in runners

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