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Eur J Nutr. 2017 Feb;56(1):431-443. doi: 10.1007/s00394-015-1108-6. Epub 2015 Nov 28.

A high-fat, high-saturated fat diet decreases insulin sensitivity without changing intra-abdominal fat in weight-stable overweight and obese adults.

Author information

1
Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA. anize.frankenberg@gmail.com.
2
Post-Graduate Endocrinology Program, School of Medicine, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil. anize.frankenberg@gmail.com.
3
Endocrinology, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, 1660 S Columbian Way (151), Seattle, WA, 98108, USA. anize.frankenberg@gmail.com.
4
Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA.
5
Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N, Seattle, WA, 98109, USA.
6
Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA.
7
School of Medicine, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA.
8
Endocrinology, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, 1660 S Columbian Way (151), Seattle, WA, 98108, USA.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

We sought to determine the effects of dietary fat on insulin sensitivity and whether changes in insulin sensitivity were explained by changes in abdominal fat distribution or very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) fatty acid composition.

METHODS:

Overweight/obese adults with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (35 % fat/12 % saturated fat/47 % carbohydrate) for 10 days, followed by a 4-week low-fat diet (LFD, n = 10: 20 % fat/8 % saturated fat/62 % carbohydrate) or high-fat diet (HFD, n = 10: 55 % fat/25 % saturated fat/27 % carbohydrate). All foods and their eucaloric energy content were provided. Insulin sensitivity was measured by labeled hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, abdominal fat distribution by MRI, and fasting VLDL fatty acids by gas chromatography.

RESULTS:

The rate of glucose disposal (Rd) during low- and high-dose insulin decreased on the HFD but remained unchanged on the LFD (Rd-low: LFD: 0.12 ± 0.11 vs. HFD: -0.37 ± 0.15 mmol/min, mean ± SE, p < 0.01; Rd-high: LFD: 0.11 ± 0.37 vs. HFD: -0.71 ± 0.26 mmol/min, p = 0.08). Hepatic insulin sensitivity did not change. Changes in subcutaneous fat were positively associated with changes in insulin sensitivity on the LFD (r = 0.78, p < 0.01) with a trend on the HFD (r = 0.60, p = 0.07), whereas there was no association with intra-abdominal fat. The LFD led to an increase in VLDL palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0), and palmitoleic (16:1n7c) acids, while no changes were observed on the HFD. Changes in VLDL n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n6) were strongly associated with changes in insulin sensitivity on both diets (LFD: r = -0.77; p < 0.01; HFD: r = -0.71; p = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS:

A diet very high in fat and saturated fat adversely affects insulin sensitivity and thereby might contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. CLINICALTRIALS.

GOV IDENTIFIER:

NCT00930371.

KEYWORDS:

Dietary fat; High-fat diet; Insulin sensitivity; Saturated fat

PMID:
26615402
PMCID:
PMC5291812
DOI:
10.1007/s00394-015-1108-6
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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