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Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2015;320:103-69. doi: 10.1016/bs.ircmb.2015.07.007. Epub 2015 Aug 17.

Intracellular Dynamics of Synucleins: "Here, There and Everywhere".

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Kansas University Medical Center, Kansas City, MO 64128, KS, USA. Electronic address:


Synucleins are small, soluble proteins expressed primarily in neural tissue and in certain tumors. The synuclein family consists of three members: α-, β-, and γ-synucleins present only in vertebrates. Members of the synuclein family have high sequence identity, especially in the N-terminal regions. The synuclein gene family came into the spotlight, when one of its members, α-synuclein, was found to be associated with Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders, whereas γ-synuclein was linked to several forms of cancer. There are a lot of controversy and exciting debates concerning members of the synuclein family, including their normal functions, toxicity, role in pathology, transmission between cells and intracellular localization. Important findings which remain undisputable for many years are synuclein localization in synapses and their role in the regulation of synaptic vesicle trafficking, whereas their presence and function in mitochondria and nucleus is a debated topic. In this review, we present the data on the localization of synucleins in two intracellular organelles: the nucleus and mitochondria.


Breast cancer; Mitochondria; Neurodegenerative diseases; Nuclei; Parkinson's disease; Proteasomes; Protein aggregation; Synucleins

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