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Pediatr Clin North Am. 2016 Feb;63(1):149-65. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2015.08.008.

Children's Environmental Health: Beyond National Boundaries.

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Children's Environmental Health Program, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California EPA, 1515 Clay Street, 16th Floor, Oakland, CA 94612, USA; Western States Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Unit at UCSF, SFGH, Occupational Environmental Medicine, Box 0843, San Francisco, CA 94143-0843, USA. Electronic address:
Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, 1001 I Street, Sacramento, CA 95814, USA.
Arnhold Institute for Global Health, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 17 East 102nd Street, Room D3-145, New York, NY 10029-6574, USA.


Children are especially vulnerable to environmental pollution, a major cause of disease, death, and disability in countries at every level of development. This article reviews threats to children, including air and water pollution, toxic industrial chemicals, pesticides, heavy metals, and hazardous wastes. Global climate change is expected to exacerbate many of these issues. Examples of innovative nongovernmental organizations and governmental programs that address the impacts of environmental hazards on children are included. International travel, adoption, migration, and movement of goods and pollutants worldwide make these conditions concerns for all pediatricians.


Air pollution; Children; Climate change; Developing nations; E-waste; Environment; Lead; Pesticides

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