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J Funct Foods. 2015 Aug;17:235-242.

Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) oligosaccharides decrease biofilm formation by uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

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Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA.
Ocean Spray Cranberries, Inc., One Ocean Spray Drive, Lakeville-Middleboro, MA, 02349, USA.
Departments of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, 02881, USA ; Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Providence, RI, 02908, USA.
Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Copenhagen, DK 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark.


The preventive effects of the American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) against urinary tract infections are supported by extensive studies which have primarily focused on its phenolic constituents. Herein, a phenolic-free carbohydrate fraction (designated cranf1b-F2) was purified from cranberry fruit using ion exchange and size exclusion chromatography. MALDI-TOF-MS analysis revealed that the cranf1b-F2 constituents are predominantly oligosaccharides possessing various degrees of polymerisation and further structural analysis (by GC-MS and NMR) revealed mainly xyloglucan and arabinan residues. In antimicrobial assays, cranf1b-F2 (at 1.25 mg/mL concentration) reduced biofilm production by the uropathogenic Escherichia coli CFT073 strain by over 50% but did not inhibit bacterial growth. Cranf1b-F2 (ranging from 0.625 - 10 mg/mL) also inhibited biofilm formation of the non-pathogenic E. coli MG1655 strain up to 60% in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that cranberry oligosaccharides, in addition to its phenolic constituents, may play a role in its preventive effects against urinary tract infections.


American cranberry; Escherichia coli; Vaccinium macrocarpon; biofilm; oligosaccharide; phenolic

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