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Ann Epidemiol. 2016 Jan;26(1):36-42.e1-2. doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2015.10.003. Epub 2015 Oct 28.

The use of multiphase nonlinear mixed models to define and quantify long-term changes in serum prostate-specific antigen: data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial.

Author information

1
South Carolina Statewide Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia. Electronic address: shoaibi@email.sc.edu.
2
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia; Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of South Carolina, Columbia.
3
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia.
4
Columbia Urological Associates, P.A., Columbia, SC.
5
South Carolina Statewide Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia. Electronic address: JHEBERT@mailbox.sc.edu.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To test the hypothesis that the pattern of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) change in men diagnosed with high-risk prostate cancer (PrCA) differs from the pattern evident in men diagnosed with low-risk PrCA or those with no evidence of PrCA.

METHODS:

A retrospective cohort study from which PSA measures were taken before PrCA diagnosis from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Data were fitted using a nonlinear regression model to estimate the adjusted absolute and relative (%) change of PSA.

RESULTS:

Data on 20,888 men with an average age of 61.61 years were included in the analysis. Of these, the 324 (1.55%) diagnosed with high-risk PrCA had a steeper and earlier transition into an exponential pattern of PSA change than the 1368 men diagnosed with low-risk cancer. At 1 year before diagnosis and/or exit, the average absolute PSA rates were 0.05 ng/mL/year (0.05-0.05), 0.59 (0.52-0.66), and 2.60 (2.11-3.09) for men with no evidence of PrCA, men with low-risk PrCA and those with high-risk PrCA, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:

The pattern of PSA change with time was significantly different for men who develop high-risk PrCA from those diagnosed with low-risk PrCA. Further research is required to validate this method and its utilization in PrCA screening.

KEYWORDS:

High-risk prostate cancer; Mixed-effect model; PSA change rate; PSA growth curves; PSA kinetics; PSA velocity; Prostate cancer detection

PMID:
26611771
PMCID:
PMC4688139
DOI:
10.1016/j.annepidem.2015.10.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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