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BMC Public Health. 2015 Nov 26;15:1185. doi: 10.1186/s12889-015-2500-0.

Differential increase in prevalence estimates of inadequate sleep among black and white Americans.

Author information

1
Center for Healthful Behavior Change, Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, 227 East 30th St, New York, NY, 10016, USA. Girardin.Jean-Louis@nyumc.org.
2
Department of Psychiatry at the University of Arizona College of Medicine, 550 East Van Buren, Tucson, AZ, 85004, USA. grandner@email.arizona.edu.
3
College of Nursing and Health Innovation, College of Health Solutions, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, 85004, USA. Shawn.Youngstedt@asu.edu.
4
Center for Healthful Behavior Change, Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, 227 East 30th St, New York, NY, 10016, USA. Natasha.Williams2@nyumc.org.
5
Center for Healthful Behavior Change, Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, 227 East 30th St, New York, NY, 10016, USA. Ferdinand.Zizi@nyumc.org.
6
Center for Minority Health & Health Disparities Research and Education, Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA, USA. dfsarps@gmail.com.
7
Center for Healthful Behavior Change, Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, 227 East 30th St, New York, NY, 10016, USA. Olugbenga.Ogedegbe@nyumc.org.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) was used to ascertain whether increases in inadequate sleep differentially affected black and white Americans. We tested the hypothesis that prevalence estimates of inadequate sleep were consistently greater among blacks, and that temporal changes have affected these two strata differentially.

METHODS:

NHIS is an ongoing cross-sectional study of non-institutionalized US adults (≥18 years) providing socio-demographic, health risk, and medical factors. Sleep duration was coded as very short sleep [VSS] (<5 h), short sleep [SS] (5-6 h), or long sleep [LS] (>8 h), referenced to 7-8 h sleepers. Analyses adjusted for NHIS' complex sampling design using SAS-callable SUDAAN.

RESULTS:

Among whites, the prevalence of VSS increased by 53% (1.5% to 2.3%) from 1977 to 2009 and the prevalence of SS increased by 32% (19.3% to 25.4 %); prevalence of LS decreased by 30% (11.2% to 7.8%). Among blacks, the prevalence of VSS increased by 21% (3.3% to 4.0%) and the prevalence of SS increased by 37% (24.6 % to 33.7%); prevalence of LS decreased by 42% (16.1% to 9.4%). Adjusted multinomial regression analysis showed that odds of reporting inadequate sleep for whites were: VSS (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.13-1.74, p < 0.001), SS (OR = 1.34, 95 % CI = 1.25-1.44, p < 0.001), and LS (OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.85-1.05, NS). For blacks, estimates were: VSS (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.60-1.40, NS), SS (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.05-1.50, p < 0.001), and LS (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.64-1.08, NS).

CONCLUSIONS:

Blacks and whites are characteristically different regarding the prevalence of inadequate sleep over the years. Temporal changes in estimates of inadequate sleep seem dependent upon individuals' race/ethnicity.

PMID:
26611643
PMCID:
PMC4661980
DOI:
10.1186/s12889-015-2500-0
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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