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Hand Clin. 2016 Feb;32(1):91-8. doi: 10.1016/j.hcl.2015.08.012.

Future Directions for Pain Management: Lessons from the Institute of Medicine Pain Report and the National Pain Strategy.

Author information

1
Departments of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Neurosciences and Neurology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA. Electronic address: smackey@stanford.edu.

Abstract

According to the Institute of Medicine Relieving Pain in America Report and the soon to be released National Pain Strategy, pain affects over 100 million Americans and costs our country in over $500 billion per year. We have a greater appreciation for the complex nature of pain and that it can develop into a disease in itself. As such, we need more efforts on prevention of chronic pain and for interdisciplinary approaches. For precision pain medicine to be successful, we need to link learning health systems with pain biomarkers (eg, genomics, proteomics, patient reported outcomes, brain markers) and its treatment.

KEYWORDS:

Chronic pain; Institute of Medicine; Learning health systems; National Pain Strategy; Precision medicine

PMID:
26611393
PMCID:
PMC4818647
DOI:
10.1016/j.hcl.2015.08.012
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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