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Neurodegener Dis Manag. 2015;5(6 Suppl):15-7. doi: 10.2217/nmt.15.56.

Advances in the management of multiple sclerosis symptoms: pathophysiology and assessment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis.

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Department of Neurology/Neuroimmunology, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Ps. Vall d'Hebron, 119-129, 08035 Barcelona, Spain.


Spasticity is a prevalent and troublesome symptom for people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Common instruments to measure MS spasticity include the clinician-rated (modified) Ashworth scale and the patient-rated 0-10 spasticity Numerical Rating Scale (NRS). Current opinion is that measurement of MS spasticity should incorporate the patient's perspective. Other instruments to assess spasticity-associated symptoms such as the Penn spasms frequency scale, sleep quality NRS and pain NRS can assist in tracking MS spasticity evolution and inform management choices. Worsening spasticity reduces patient autonomy, impacts negatively on quality of life and increases health resource utilization and costs. Despite the wide range of issues associated with MS spasticity, undertreatment is common and standard treatment options (physiotherapy and classical oral therapies) often fail to provide adequate symptomatic control.


Sativex; multiple sclerosis; review; spasticity; symptom management

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