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Int J Environ Health Res. 2016;26(3):306-16. doi: 10.1080/09603123.2015.1111310. Epub 2015 Nov 26.

Phthalate monoesters in association with uterine leiomyomata in Shanghai.

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a Department of Gynecology , Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital of Tongji University , Shanghai , China.
b Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of Ministry of Education, Collaborative Innovation Center of Social Risks Governance in Health, School of Public Health , Fudan University , Shanghai , China.


Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental pollutants because of the broad use of plastics. We conducted a case-control study to determine whether uterine leiomyomata were related to exposure to phthalates. Urine specimens and questionnaires were collected from 61 cases and 61 age-matched controls. Nine phthalate monoesters were determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectroscopy. Cases had significantly higher levels of creatinine-adjusted mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), total di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites (∑DEHPmet), and total dibutyl phthalate metabolites (∑DBP(met)) than controls. After adjusting for potential confounders, logistic regression analyses demonstrated that leiomyomata were positively associated with MiBP, MnBP, MEHP, MEHHP, MECPP, ∑DEHP(met), and ∑DBP(met). In summary, our data support the hypothesis that uterine leiomyomata are related to phthalate exposure.


di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP); dibutyl phthalate; phthalate exposure; phthalate monoesters; uterine leiomyomata

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