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Neuropsychol Rev. 2015 Dec;25(4):384-97. doi: 10.1007/s11065-015-9308-7. Epub 2015 Nov 25.

High Frequency Deep Brain Stimulation and Neural Rhythms in Parkinson's Disease.

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Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.
Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.
Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.
Stanford University School of Medicine, Rm A343, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.


High frequency (HF) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established therapy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). It effectively treats the cardinal motor signs of PD, including tremor, bradykinesia, and rigidity. The most common neural target is the subthalamic nucleus, located within the basal ganglia, the region most acutely affected by PD pathology. Using chronically-implanted DBS electrodes, researchers have been able to record underlying neural rhythms from several nodes in the PD network as well as perturb it using DBS to measure the ensuing neural and behavioral effects, both acutely and over time. In this review, we provide an overview of the PD neural network, focusing on the pathophysiological signals that have been recorded from PD patients as well as the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic benefits of HF DBS. We then discuss evidence for the relationship between specific neural oscillations and symptoms of PD, including the aberrant relationships potentially underlying functional connectivity in PD as well as the use of different frequencies of stimulation to more specifically target certain symptoms. Finally, we briefly describe several current areas of investigation and how the ability to record neural data in ecologically-valid settings may allow researchers to explore the relationship between brain and behavior in an unprecedented manner, culminating in the future automation of neurostimulation therapy for the treatment of a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases.


Beta band; Closed-loop; Deep brain stimulation; Neuromodulation; Parkinson’s disease; Subthalamic nucleus

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