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Pathol Res Pract. 2016 Feb;212(2):77-82. doi: 10.1016/j.prp.2015.10.007. Epub 2015 Oct 23.

Detection of human papillomavirus in esophageal and gastroesophageal junction tumors: A retrospective study by real-time polymerase chain reaction in an instutional experience from Turkey and review of literature.

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Department of Pathology, Ankara Numune Research and Education Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.
Department of Pathology, Kocaeli University Faculty of Medicine, Kocaeli, Turkey. Electronic address:
Kocaeli University Hospital, Clinical Laboratory, PCR Unit, Kocaeli, Turkey; Near East University, Research Center of Experimental Health Sciences, Nicasia, Northern Cyprus.
Department of Pathology, Kocaeli University Faculty of Medicine, Kocaeli, Turkey.


Esophageal cancer is a poor-prognosis malignancy that ranks eighth among all cancer types, and its prevalence shows differences among geographical regions. Although the most important risk factors for esophageal carcinoma are alcohol and smoking, viral infections, particularly HPV infection, are also considered among etiological agents. Our study aims to detect the presence of HPV in esophageal cancers in our patient population and to investigate its correlation with clinico-pathological parameters. We investigated the presence of HPV-DNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction in a total of 52 patients with esophageal cancer. Subtype analysis was performed in positive cases and was correlated with selected clinico-pathological parameters. Five (9.6%) of 52 tumor samples, 3 squamous cell carcinomas (3/33 cases) and 2 adenocarcinomas (2/19 cases), were HPV-DNA-positive. Subtype analysis could be performed in four HPV-DNA-positive cases, of which three were HPV type-39 and 1 was type-16. The Marmara region, where the present study was carried out, is a region with low-moderate risk for esophageal cancer, and the prevalence of HPV-DNA in these tumors is similar to the prevalence of HPV-DNA reported in the literature for regions with similar risk. In conclusion, we detected HPV DNA in a subset of esophageal and gastroesophageal junction tumors. HPV infection may have a role in esophageal carcinogenesis and high-risk HPV subtypes can particularly be considered among risk factors since the prevalence of high risk HPV infection has also been found to be increased in regions with a high risk for esophageal cancer compared to low-moderate risk regions.


Adenocarcinoma; Esophageal cancer; Human papillomavirus; Real-time polymerase chain reaction; Squamous cell carcinoma

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