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J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2016 Mar;26(3):579-87. doi: 10.4014/jmb.1510.10070.

Phytoncide Extracted from Pinecone Decreases LPS-Induced Inflammatory Responses in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells.

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Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Republic of Korea.
Department of Animal Science and Technology, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Republic of Korea.
Wide River Institute of Immunology, Seoul National University, Hongcheon 25159, Republic of Korea.
Toxicology and Cancer Biology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA.
Phylus Corporation, Danyang 27000, Republic of Korea.
Department of Animal Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Republic of Korea.
Department of Biotechnology, CHA University, Seongnam 13488, Republic of Korea.


Mastitis is a prevalent inflammatory disease that remains one of the main causes of poor quality of milk. Phytoncides are naturally occurring anti-inflammatory compounds derived from plants and trees. To determine if treatment with phytoncide could decrease the severity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses, mammary alveolar epithelial cells (MAC-T) were pretreated with phytoncide (0.02% and 0.04% (v/v)) followed by LPS treatment (1 and 25 μg/ml). The results demonstrated that phytoncide downregulated LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. Additionally, LPS-induced activation of ERK1/2, p38, and Akt was attenuated by phytoncide. Treatment of cells with known pharmacological inhibitors of ERK1/2 (PD98059), p38 (SB203580), and Akt (LY294002) confirmed the association of these signaling pathways with the observed alterations in COX-2 expression. Moreover, phytoncide attenuated LPS-induced NF-κB activation and superoxide production, and, finally, treatment with phytoncide increased Nrf2 activation. Results suggest that phytoncide can decrease LPS-induced inflammation in MAC-T cells.


COX-2; MAC-T cell; inflammation; lipopolysaccharide; mastitis

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