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Age (Dordr). 2015 Dec;37(6):121. doi: 10.1007/s11357-015-9860-3. Epub 2015 Nov 25.

Sex-specific differences in risk factors for sarcopenia amongst community-dwelling older adults.

Author information

1
Department of Geriatric Medicine, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, 11 Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore, 308433, Singapore. Laura_Tay@ttsh.com.sg.
2
Institute of Geriatrics and Active Ageing, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore, Singapore. Laura_Tay@ttsh.com.sg.
3
Department of Geriatric Medicine, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, 11 Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore, 308433, Singapore.
4
Institute of Geriatrics and Active Ageing, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore, Singapore.
5
Department of Rheumatology, Allergy and Immunology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore, Singapore.
6
Department of Physiology, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
7
Department of Continuing and Community Care, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore, Singapore.
8
Department of Pharmacology, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Abstract

With considerable variation including potential sex-specific differential rate of skeletal muscle loss, identifying modifiable factors for sarcopenia will be pivotal to guide targeted interventions. This study seeks to identify clinical and biological correlates of sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults, with emphasis on the role of anabolic and catabolic stimuli, and special reference to gender specificity. In this cross-sectional study involving 200 community-dwelling and functionally independent older adults aged ≥50 years, sarcopenia was defined using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criteria. Comorbidities, cognitive and functional performance, physical activity and nutritional status were routinely assessed. Biochemical parameters included haematological indices, lipid panel, vitamin D level, anabolic hormones [insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), free testosterone (males only)] and catabolic markers [inflammatory markers (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein) and myostatin]. Multiple logistic regression was performed to identify independent predictors for sarcopenia. Age was associated with sarcopenia in both genders. Malnutrition conferred significantly higher odds for sarcopenia in women (OR = 5.71, 95% CI 1.13-28.84.44, p = 0.035) while higher but acceptable range serum triglyceride was protective in men (OR = 0.05, 95% CI 0.00-0.52, p = 0.012). Higher serum myostatin independently associated with higher odds for sarcopenia in men (OR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.00-1.24, p = 0.041). Serum IGF-1 was significantly lower amongst female sarcopenic subjects, with demonstrable trend for protective effect against sarcopenia in multiple regression models, such that each 1 ng/ml increase in IGF-1 was associated with 1% decline in odds of sarcopenia in women (p = 0.095). Our findings support differential pathophysiological mechanisms for sarcopenia that, if corroborated, may have clinical utility in guiding sex-specific targeted interventions for community-dwelling older adults.

KEYWORDS:

Insulin-like growth factor-1; Myostatin; Nutrition; Sarcopenia

PMID:
26607157
PMCID:
PMC5005859
DOI:
10.1007/s11357-015-9860-3
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Conflict of interest statement

Compliance with ethical standards Informed written consent was obtained from the participant, and the study was approved by the Domain Specific Review Board (DSRB) of the National Healthcare Group (NHG). Funding support This study was funded by Lee Foundation Grant 2013. Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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