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Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Dec 15;61 Suppl 8:S837-48. doi: 10.1093/cid/civ738.

A Review of Evidence-Based Care of Symptomatic Trichomoniasis and Asymptomatic Trichomonas vaginalis Infections.

Author information

1
Division of STD Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
2
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.
3
Departments of Medicine and Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill.
4
Department of Epidemiology, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana.
5
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
6
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine.
7
Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
8
Division of Infectious Diseases, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan.
9
Division of STD Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.

Abstract

Trichomonas vaginalis is the most prevalent nonviral sexually transmitted infection, affecting an estimated 3.7 million women and men in the United States. Health disparities are prominent in the epidemiology of this infection, which affects 11% of women aged ≥40 years and a disproportionately high percentage of black women. Particularly high prevalences have been identified among sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic patients and incarcerated individuals. This article reviews and updates scientific evidence in key topic areas used for the development of the 2015 STD Treatment Guidelines published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Current evidence is presented regarding conditions associated with Trichomonas vaginalis infection, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and pregnancy complications such as preterm birth. Nucleic acid amplification tests and point-of-care tests are newly available diagnostic methods that can be conducted on a variety of specimens, potentially allowing highly sensitive testing and screening of both women and men at risk for infection. Usually, trichomoniasis can be cured with single-dose therapy of an appropriate nitroimidazole antibiotic, but women who are also infected with HIV should receive therapy for 7 days. Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging concern.

KEYWORDS:

Trichomonas infections; Trichomonas vaginalis; Trichomonas vaginitis; antitrichomonal agents; sexually transmitted diseases

PMID:
26602621
PMCID:
PMC4657597
DOI:
10.1093/cid/civ738
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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