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J Gen Virol. 2016 Feb;97(2):344-55. doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.000351. Epub 2015 Nov 24.

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus shows poor replication but significant induction of antiviral responses in human monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells.

Author information

1
1​ National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Helsinki, Finland.
2
2​ Laboratory of Virology, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, Hamilton, MT, USA.
3
1​ National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Helsinki, Finland 3​ Department of Virology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Abstract

In this study we assessed the ability of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) to replicate and induce innate immunity in human monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells (MDDCs), and compared it with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Assessments of viral protein and RNA levels in infected cells showed that both viruses were impaired in their ability to replicate in these cells. Some induction of IFN-λ1, CXCL10 and MxA mRNAs in both macrophages and MDDCs was seen in response to MERS-CoV infection, but almost no such induction was observed in response to SARS-CoV infection. ELISA and Western blot assays showed clear production of CXCL10 and MxA in MERS-CoV-infected macrophages and MDDCs. Our data suggest that SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV replicate poorly in human macrophages and MDDCs, but MERS-CoV is nonetheless capable of inducing a readily detectable host innate immune response. Our results highlight a clear difference between the viruses in activating host innate immune responses in macrophages and MDDCs, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of infection.

PMID:
26602089
PMCID:
PMC4804640
DOI:
10.1099/jgv.0.000351
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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