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Biomed Opt Express. 2015 Oct 27;6(11):4585-98. doi: 10.1364/BOE.6.004585. eCollection 2015 Nov 1.

Modular platform for low-light microscopy.

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Department of Radiation Oncology (Medical Physics), Stanford University, 1050 Arastradero Rd., Palo Alto, CA, 94304, USA.
Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, 350 Serra Mall, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.


Cell imaging using low-light techniques such as bioluminescence, radioluminescence, and low-excitation fluorescence has received increased attention, particularly due to broad commercialization of highly sensitive detectors. However, the dim signals are still regarded as difficult to image using conventional microscopes, where the only low-light microscope in the market is primarily optimized for bioluminescence imaging. Here, we developed a novel modular microscope that is cost-effective and suitable for imaging different low-light luminescence modes. Results show that this microscope system features excellent aberration correction capabilities and enhanced image resolution, where bioluminescence, radioluminescence and epifluorescence images were captured and compared with the commercial bioluminescence microscope.


(040.3780) Low light level; (110.0180) Microscopy; (170.3880) Medical and biological imaging; (260.3800) Luminescence

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