Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Epidemiology. 2016 Mar;27(2):211-20. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000421.

Long- and Short-term Exposure to Air Pollution and Inflammatory/Hemostatic Markers in Midlife Women.

Author information

1
From the aOffice of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, Oakland, CA; bDepartment of Public Health Sciences, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Davis, CA; cKaiser Permanente Division of Research, Oakland, CA; dDepartment of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA; eDepartment of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA; fDepartment of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA; gRush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL; hSchool of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; iSaul R. Korey Department of Neurology, and Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY; and jDivision of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, Ann Arbor, MI.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Studies have reported associations between long-term air pollution exposures and cardiovascular mortality. The biological mechanisms connecting them remain uncertain.

METHODS:

We examined associations of fine particles (PM2.5) and ozone with serum markers of cardiovascular disease risk in a cohort of midlife women. We obtained information from women enrolled at six sites in the multi-ethnic, longitudinal Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, including repeated measurements of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, tissue-type plasminogen activator antigen, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, and factor VIIc (factor VII coagulant activity). We obtained residence-proximate PM2.5 and ozone monitoring data for a maximum five annual visits, calculating prior year, 6-month, 1-month, and 1-day exposures and their relations to serum markers using longitudinal mixed models.

RESULTS:

For the 2,086 women studied from 1999 to 2004, PM2.5 exposures were associated with all blood markers except factor VIIc after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, site, body mass index, smoking, and recent alcohol use. Adjusted associations were strongest for prior year exposures for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (21% increase per 10 μg/m³ PM2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.6, 37), tissue-type plasminogen activator antigen (8.6%, 95% CI: 1.8, 16), and plasminogen activator inhibitor (35%, 95% CI: 19, 53). An association was also observed between year prior ozone exposure and factor VIIc (5.7% increase per 10 ppb ozone, 95% CI: 2.9, 8.5).

CONCLUSIONS:

Our findings suggest that prior year exposures to PM2.5 and ozone are associated with adverse effects on inflammatory and hemostatic pathways for cardiovascular outcomes in midlife women.

PMID:
26600256
PMCID:
PMC4841679
[Available on 2017-03-01]
DOI:
10.1097/EDE.0000000000000421
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Publication types, MeSH terms, Substances, Grant support

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wolters Kluwer Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center