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Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016 Feb;1861(2):91-97. doi: 10.1016/j.bbalip.2015.11.007. Epub 2015 Nov 17.

Palmitic acid (16:0) competes with omega-6 linoleic and omega-3 ɑ-linolenic acids for FADS2 mediated Δ6-desaturation.

Author information

1
Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.
2
Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. Electronic address: ksk25@cornell.edu.
3
Department of Marine Food Science and Technology, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung, Gangwon, 210-702, Korea.
4
Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. Electronic address: jtb4@cornell.edu.

Abstract

Sapienic acid, 16:1n-10 is the most abundant unsaturated fatty acid on human skin where its synthesis is mediated by FADS2 in the sebaceous glands. The FADS2 product introduces a double bond at the Δ6, Δ4 and Δ8 positions by acting on at least ten substrates, including 16:0, 18:2n-6, and 18:3n-3. Our aim was to characterize the competition for accessing FADS2 mediated Δ6 desaturation between 16:0 and the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the human diet, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3, to evaluate whether competition may be relevant in other tissues and thus linked to metabolic abnormalities associated with FADS2 or fatty acid levels. MCF7 cells stably transformed with FADS2 biosynthesize 16:1n-10 from exogenous 16:0 in preference to 16:1n-7, the immediate product of SCD highly expressed in cancer cell lines, and 16:1n-9 via partial β-oxidation of 18:1n-9. Increasing availability of 18:2n-6 or 18:3n-3 resulted in decreased bioconversion of 16:0 to 16:1n-10, simultaneously increasing the levels of highly unsaturated products. FADS2 cells accumulate the desaturation-elongation products 20:3n-6 and 20:4n-3 in preference to the immediate desaturation products 18:3n-6 and 18:4n-3 implying prompt/coupled elongation of the nascent desaturation products. MCF7 cells incorporate newly synthesized 16:1n-10 into phospholipids. These data suggest that excess 16:0 due to, for instance, de novo lipogenesis from high carbohydrate or alcohol consumption, inhibits synthesis of highly unsaturated fatty acids, and may in part explain why supplemental preformed EPA and DHA in some studies improves insulin resistance and other factors related to diabetes and metabolic syndrome aggravated by excess calorie consumption.

KEYWORDS:

Fatty acid desaturases; Monounsaturated fatty acids; Palmitic acid; Polyunsaturated fatty acids; Sapienic acid; Δ6 desaturase

PMID:
26597785
PMCID:
PMC4691389
DOI:
10.1016/j.bbalip.2015.11.007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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