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Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2016 Feb;96(2):156-61. doi: 10.1007/s00128-015-1701-7. Epub 2015 Nov 23.

Uptake and Elimination of 4-Nonylphenol in the Enchytraeid Enchytraeus albidus.

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Department of Biology, CESAM (Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies), University of Aveiro, 3810-193, Aveiro, Portugal.
Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Vejlsøvej 25, 8600, Silkeborg, Denmark.


We determined the uptake and elimination kinetics of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) in Enchytraeus albidus. A relatively fast degradation of 4-NP in test soil occurred at 20°C (λ = 0.11 day(-1)). The concentration of 4-NP in worm tissue followed a three-phase kinetics model, with a short phase of fast 4-NP accumulation shortly after exposure start (k u = 0.97 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), followed by partial elimination (K e1 = 1.47 day(-1)) until reaching the equilibrium phase (A = 44.7 mg kg(-1) fresh tissue), and finally the elimination upon transfer to uncontaminated soil (K e2 = 0.67 day(-1)). During uptake, the internal concentration was similar to the concentration found in the soil, with a BAF ~ 1. In un-spiked soil, elimination took place within the first 24 h (elimination t1/2 ~ 1 day).


Bioaccumulation; Surfactant; Terrestrial enchytraeids; Toxicokinetics

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