Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Infect Dis. 2016 Apr 1;213(7):1115-23. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv555. Epub 2015 Nov 23.

Measles Virus Neutralizing Antibody Response, Cell-Mediated Immunity, and Immunoglobulin G Antibody Avidity Before and After Receipt of a Third Dose of Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Vaccine in Young Adults.

Author information

1
National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
2
Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation, Wisconsin.
3
Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring.
4
W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Two doses of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine are 97% effective against measles, but waning antibody immunity to measles and failure of the 2-dose vaccine occur. We administered a third MMR dose (MMR3) to young adults and assessed immunogenicity over 1 year.

METHODS:

Measles virus (MeV) neutralizing antibody concentrations, cell-mediated immunity (CMI), and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody avidity were assessed at baseline and 1 month and 1 year after MMR3 receipt.

RESULTS:

Of 662 subjects at baseline, 1 (0.2%) was seronegative for MeV-neutralizing antibodies (level, <8 mIU/mL), and 23 (3.5%) had low antibody levels (8-120 mIU/mL). One month after MMR3 receipt, 1 subject (0.2%) was seronegative, and 6 (0.9%) had low neutralizing antibodies, with only 21 of 662 (3.2%) showing a ≥ 4-fold rise in neutralizing antibodies. One year after MMR3 receipt, no subject was seronegative, and 10 of 617 (1.6%) had low neutralizing antibody levels. CMI analyses showed low levels of spot-forming cells after stimulation, suggesting the presence of T-cell memory, but the response was minimal after MMR3 receipt. MeV IgG avidity did not correlate with findings of neutralization analyses.

CONCLUSIONS:

Most subjects were seropositive before MMR3 receipt, and very few had a secondary immune response after MMR3 receipt. Similarly, CMI and avidity analyses showed minimal qualitative improvements in immune response after MMR3 receipt. We did not find compelling data to support a routine third dose of MMR vaccine.

KEYWORDS:

cell-mediated immunity; immunization; measles; measles vaccine immunogenicity; measles virus antibody avidity; third dose of measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine; vaccine-preventable disease

PMID:
26597262
PMCID:
PMC5729920
DOI:
10.1093/infdis/jiv555
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center