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J Headache Pain. 2015;16:97. doi: 10.1186/s10194-015-0583-8. Epub 2015 Nov 23.

Validation of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and GAD-2 in patients with migraine.

Author information

1
Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 680 Gukchaebosang-ro, Daegu, 700-842, Jung-gu, Republic of Korea. jonggeun.seo@gmail.com.
2
Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 680 Gukchaebosang-ro, Daegu, 700-842, Jung-gu, Republic of Korea. sppark@mail.knu.ac.kr.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Psychiatric problems have been commonly reported in patients with migraine. This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2 (GAD-2) in patients with migraine.

METHODS:

Subjects were recruited from a headache clinic and a neuropsychologist examined their GAD using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Plus Version 5.0.0 (MINI). Subjects completed several instruments, including the GAD-7, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Migraine Disability Assessment Scale (MIDAS), the Headache Impact Test-6 (HIT-6), and the Migraine-Specific Quality of Life (MSQoL).

RESULTS:

Among 146 participants, 32 patients (21.9 %) had GAD as determined by the MINI. Cronbach's α for the GAD-7 and GAD-2 were 0.915 and 0.820, respectively. At a cutoff score of 5, the GAD-7 had a sensitivity of 78.1 %, a specificity of 74.6 %, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 46.3 %, and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 92.4 %. At a cutoff score of 1, the GAD-2 had a sensitivity of 84.4 %, a specificity of 72.8 %, a PPV of 46.6 %, and a NPV of 94.3 %. The scores of the GAD-7 and GAD-2 well correlated with the BAI score, the MIDAS score, the HIT-6 score, and the MSQoL score.

CONCLUSIONS:

The GAD-7 and GAD-2 are both reliable and valid screening instruments for GAD in patients with migraine.

KEYWORDS:

Anxiety; GAD-2; GAD-7; Migraine; Validity

PMID:
26596588
PMCID:
PMC4656257
DOI:
10.1186/s10194-015-0583-8
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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