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Nature. 2015 Dec 24;528(7583):499-503. doi: 10.1038/nature16152. Epub 2015 Nov 23.

Genome-wide patterns of selection in 230 ancient Eurasians.

Author information

1
Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
2
Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA.
3
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
4
Independent researcher, Santpoort-Noord, The Netherlands.
5
School of Archaeology and Earth Institute, Belfield, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland.
6
Institute for Anthropological Research, Zagreb 10000, Croatia.
7
Department of Anthropology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA.
8
Smurfit Institute of Genetics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland.
9
Australian Centre for Ancient DNA, School of Biological Sciences &Environment Institute, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia.
10
Laboratory of Human Molecular Genetics, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia.
11
Department of Paleolithic Archaeology, Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia.
12
Centro Mixto UCM-ISCIII de Evolución y Comportamiento Humanos, 28040 Madrid, Spain.
13
Departamento de Paleontología, Facultad Ciencias Geológicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain.
14
Centro Nacional de Investigacíon sobre Evolución Humana (CENIEH), 09002 Burgos, Spain.
15
IPHES. Institut Català de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolució Social, Campus Sescelades-URV, 43007 Tarragona, Spain.
16
Area de Prehistoria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV), 43002 Tarragona, Spain.
17
Netherlands Institute in Turkey, Istiklal Caddesi, Nur-i Ziya Sokak 5, Beyog˘ lu 34433, Istanbul, Turkey.
18
Volga State Academy of Social Sciences and Humanities, Samara 443099, Russia.
19
State Office for Heritage Management and Archaeology Saxony-Anhalt and State Museum of Prehistory, D-06114 Halle, Germany.
20
Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera) RAS, St Petersburg 199034, Russia.
21
Department of Prehistory and Archaeology, University of Valladolid, 47002 Valladolid, Spain.
22
The Netherlands Institute for the Near East, Leiden RA-2300, the Netherlands.
23
Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, D-07745 Jena, Germany.
24
Institute for Archaeological Sciences, University of Tübingen, D-72070 Tübingen, Germany.
25
Danube Private University, A-3500 Krems, Austria.
26
Institute for Prehistory and Archaeological Science, University of Basel, CH-4003 Basel, Switzerland.
27
Anthropology Department, Hartwick College, Oneonta, New York 13820, USA.
28
Institute of Evolutionary Biology (CSIC-Universitat Pompeu Fabra), 08003 Barcelona, Spain.

Abstract

Ancient DNA makes it possible to observe natural selection directly by analysing samples from populations before, during and after adaptation events. Here we report a genome-wide scan for selection using ancient DNA, capitalizing on the largest ancient DNA data set yet assembled: 230 West Eurasians who lived between 6500 and 300 bc, including 163 with newly reported data. The new samples include, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide ancient DNA from Anatolian Neolithic farmers, whose genetic material we obtained by extracting from petrous bones, and who we show were members of the population that was the source of Europe's first farmers. We also report a transect of the steppe region in Samara between 5600 and 300 bc, which allows us to identify admixture into the steppe from at least two external sources. We detect selection at loci associated with diet, pigmentation and immunity, and two independent episodes of selection on height.

PMID:
26595274
PMCID:
PMC4918750
DOI:
10.1038/nature16152
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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