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F1000Res. 2015 Jun 24;4:167. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.6644.1. eCollection 2015.

Constellation Map: Downstream visualization and interpretation of gene set enrichment results.

Author information

Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, 02142, USA.
Bioinformatics Program, Boston University, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.
Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.
Division of Hematology/Oncology, Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.
Contributed equally


Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) approaches are widely used to identify coordinately regulated genes associated with phenotypes of interest. Here, we present Constellation Map, a tool to visualize and interpret the results when enrichment analyses yield a long list of significantly enriched gene sets. Constellation Map identifies commonalities that explain the enrichment of multiple top-scoring gene sets and maps the relationships between them. Constellation Map can help investigators take full advantage of GSEA and facilitates the biological interpretation of enrichment results.


Constellation Map is freely available as a GenePattern module at


GSEA; gene expression; gene set enrichment analysis; mutual information; pathway; signature; visualization

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