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Ageing Res Rev. 2016 Jan;25:24-41. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2015.11.002. Epub 2015 Nov 15.

Visible aging signs as risk markers for ischemic heart disease: Epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical implications.

Author information

1
Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Section for Molecular Genetics, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Blegdamsvej 9, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
2
Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Section for Molecular Genetics, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Blegdamsvej 9, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark; Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address: anne.tybjaerg.hansen@regionh.dk.

Abstract

Association of common aging signs (i.e., male pattern baldness, hair graying, and facial wrinkles) as well as other age-related appearance factors (i.e., arcus corneae, xanthelasmata, and earlobe crease) with increased risk of ischemic heart disease was initially described in anecdotal reports from clinicians observing trends in the physical appearance of patients with ischemic heart disease. Following these early observations numerous epidemiological studies have reported these associations. Since the prevalences of both visible aging signs and ischemic heart disease have a strong correlation with increasing age, it has been extensively debated whether the observed associations could be entirely explained by a common association with age. Furthermore, the etiologies of the visible aging signs are rarely fully understood, and pathophysiological explanations for these associations remain controversial, and are mostly speculative. As a consequence of inconsistent findings and lack of mechanistic explanations for the observed associations with ischemic heart disease, consensus on the clinical importance of these visible aging signs has been lacking. The aim of this review is for each of the visible aging signs to (i) review the etiology, (ii) to discuss the current epidemiological evidence for an association with risk of ischemic heart disease, and (iii) to present possible pathophysiological explanations for these associations. Finally this review discusses the potential clinical implications of these findings.

KEYWORDS:

Arcus corneae; Earlobe crease; Ischemic heart disease; Male pattern baldness; Visible aging signs; Xanthelasmata

PMID:
26590331
DOI:
10.1016/j.arr.2015.11.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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