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PLoS Genet. 2015 Nov 20;11(11):e1005692. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005692. eCollection 2015 Nov.

The lncRNA RZE1 Controls Cryptococcal Morphological Transition.

Author information

1
Department of Biology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, United States of America.
2
Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, United States of America.

Abstract

In the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, the switch from yeast to hypha is an important morphological process preceding the meiotic events during sexual development. Morphotype is also known to be associated with cryptococcal virulence potential. Previous studies identified the regulator Znf2 as a key decision maker for hypha formation and as an anti-virulence factor. By a forward genetic screen, we discovered that a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) RZE1 functions upstream of ZNF2 in regulating yeast-to-hypha transition. We demonstrate that RZE1 functions primarily in cis and less effectively in trans. Interestingly, RZE1's function is restricted to its native nucleus. Accordingly, RZE1 does not appear to directly affect Znf2 translation or the subcellular localization of Znf2 protein. Transcriptome analysis indicates that the loss of RZE1 reduces the transcript level of ZNF2 and Znf2's prominent downstream targets. In addition, microscopic examination using single molecule fluorescent in situ hybridization (smFISH) indicates that the loss of RZE1 increases the ratio of ZNF2 transcripts in the nucleus versus those in the cytoplasm. Taken together, this lncRNA controls Cryptococcus yeast-to-hypha transition through regulating the key morphogenesis regulator Znf2. This is the first functional characterization of a lncRNA in a human fungal pathogen. Given the potential large number of lncRNAs in the genomes of Cryptococcus and other fungal pathogens, the findings implicate lncRNAs as an additional layer of genetic regulation during fungal development that may well contribute to the complexity in these "simple" eukaryotes.

PMID:
26588844
PMCID:
PMC4654512
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pgen.1005692
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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