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Matrix Biol. 2016 May-Jul;52-54:234-245. doi: 10.1016/j.matbio.2015.11.004. Epub 2015 Nov 14.

V-type ATPase proton pump expression during enamel formation.

Author information

1
Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, Herman Ostrow School of Dentistry of USC, University of Southern California, Los Angeles 90033, USA.
2
Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, Herman Ostrow School of Dentistry of USC, University of Southern California, Los Angeles 90033, USA. Electronic address: paine@usc.edu.

Abstract

Several diseases such as proximal and distal renal tubular acidosis and osteoporosis are related to intracellular pH dysregulation resulting from mutations in genes coding for ion channels, including proteins comprising the proton-pumping V-type ATPase. V-type ATPase is a multi-subunit protein complex expressed in enamel forming cells. V-type ATPase plays a key role in enamel development, specifically lysosomal acidification, yet our understanding of the relationship between the endocytotic activities and dental health and disease is limited. The objective of this study is to better understand the ameloblast-associated pH regulatory networks essential for amelogenesis. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed on tissues from secretory-stage and maturation-stage enamel organs to determine which of the V-type ATPase subunits are most highly upregulated during maturation-stage amelogenesis: a time when ameloblast endocytotic activity is highest. Western blot analyses, using specific antibodies to four of the V-type ATPase subunits (Atp6v0d2, Atp6v1b2, Atp6v1c1 and Atp6v1e1), were then applied to validate much of the qPCR data. Immunohistochemistry using these same four antibodies was also performed to identify the spatiotemporal expression profiles of individual V-type ATPase subunits. Our data show that cytoplasmic V-type ATPase is significantly upregulated in enamel organ cells during maturation-stage when compared to secretory-stage. These data likely relate to the higher endocytotic activities, and the greater need for lysosomal acidification, during maturation-stage amelogenesis. It is also apparent from our immunolocalization data, using antibodies against two of the V-type ATPase subunits (Atp6v1c1 and Atp6v1e1), that significant expression is seen at the apical membrane of maturation-stage ameloblasts. Others have also identified this V-type ATPase expression profile at the apical membrane of maturation ameloblasts. Collectively, these data better define the expression and role of the V-type ATPase proton pump in the enamel organ during amelogenesis.

KEYWORDS:

ATP6 subunits; Amelogenesis; V-type ATPase; pH regulation

PMID:
26586472
PMCID:
PMC4867139
DOI:
10.1016/j.matbio.2015.11.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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