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Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2015 Dec;29:108-19. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2015.10.018. Epub 2015 Nov 14.

Lignocellulose degradation mechanisms across the Tree of Life.

Author information

1
School of Biological Sciences, University of Portsmouth, King Henry Building, King Henry 1st St., Portsmouth PO1 2DY, UK. Electronic address: simon.cragg@port.ac.uk.
2
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, National Bioenergy Centre, Golden, CO 80401 USA.
3
University of York, Department of Biological Sciences, Centre for Novel Agricultural Products, York YO10 5DD, UK.
4
Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK.
5
Ocean Genome Legacy, Marine Science Center, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA.
6
Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Hopkins Building, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QW, UK.
7
School of Biological Sciences, University of Portsmouth, King Henry Building, King Henry 1st St., Portsmouth PO1 2DY, UK.
8
Department of Sustainable Biomaterials, 216 ICTAS II Bldg., Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA.
9
Department of Plant Pathology, Physiology and Weed Science, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA.
10
Novozymes AS, DK-2880 Bagsvaerd, Denmark.
11
Department of Chemistry, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK.
12
Leibniz-Center for Tropical Marine Ecology (ZMT) GmbH, Fahrenheitstrasse 6, 28359 Bremen, Germany.

Abstract

Organisms use diverse mechanisms involving multiple complementary enzymes, particularly glycoside hydrolases (GHs), to deconstruct lignocellulose. Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) produced by bacteria and fungi facilitate deconstruction as does the Fenton chemistry of brown-rot fungi. Lignin depolymerisation is achieved by white-rot fungi and certain bacteria, using peroxidases and laccases. Meta-omics is now revealing the complexity of prokaryotic degradative activity in lignocellulose-rich environments. Protists from termite guts and some oomycetes produce multiple lignocellulolytic enzymes. Lignocellulose-consuming animals secrete some GHs, but most harbour a diverse enzyme-secreting gut microflora in a mutualism that is particularly complex in termites. Shipworms however, house GH-secreting and LPMO-secreting bacteria separate from the site of digestion and the isopod Limnoria relies on endogenous enzymes alone. The omics revolution is identifying many novel enzymes and paradigms for biomass deconstruction, but more emphasis on function is required, particularly for enzyme cocktails, in which LPMOs may play an important role.

PMID:
26583519
DOI:
10.1016/j.cbpa.2015.10.018
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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