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Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2015;2015:482582. doi: 10.1155/2015/482582. Epub 2015 Oct 25.

Mitochondrial Retrograde Signaling: Triggers, Pathways, and Outcomes.

Author information

1
Departamento de Bioquímica, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, 04044-020 São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
2
Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Abstract

Mitochondria are essential organelles for eukaryotic homeostasis. Although these organelles possess their own DNA, the vast majority (>99%) of mitochondrial proteins are encoded in the nucleus. This situation makes systems that allow the communication between mitochondria and the nucleus a requirement not only to coordinate mitochondrial protein synthesis during biogenesis but also to communicate eventual mitochondrial malfunctions, triggering compensatory responses in the nucleus. Mitochondria-to-nucleus retrograde signaling has been described in various organisms, albeit with differences in effector pathways, molecules, and outcomes, as discussed in this review.

PMID:
26583058
PMCID:
PMC4637108
DOI:
10.1155/2015/482582
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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