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Reprod Toxicol. 2016 Jan;59:159-66. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2015.10.006. Epub 2015 Nov 12.

Quaternary ammonium disinfectants cause subfertility in mice by targeting both male and female reproductive processes.

Author information

1
Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, VA-MD College of Veterinary Medicine, VA Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA.
2
Department of Biomedical Science, E. Via College of Osteopathic Medicine - Virginia Campus, Blacksburg, VA 24060, USA.
3
Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, VA-MD College of Veterinary Medicine, VA Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA; Department of Biomedical Science, E. Via College of Osteopathic Medicine - Virginia Campus, Blacksburg, VA 24060, USA. Electronic address: thrubec@vcom.vt.edu.

Abstract

Alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) and didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC) are common ingredients in household bathroom and kitchen cleaning sprays. ADBAC+DDAC cause reproductive toxicity in mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate gender-specific reproductive effects from ADBAC+DDAC. Female reproduction was assessed through ovulation, oocyte implantation, and estrus cycling. Male reproductive function was assessed by sperm concentration, motility, and viability. Numbers of corpora lutea were not different after 2 weeks, but decreased after 8 weeks of ADBAC+DDAC exposure. Dams exposed for 5 weeks to ADBAC+DDAC spent significantly less time in estrus. ADBAC+DDAC exposed males exhibited declines in both sperm concentration and motility, but not sperm viability. Subfertility in mice from ADBAC+DDAC exposure is, therefore, mediated through reproductive disturbances in both females and males. While the effect of ADBAC+DDAC exposure on human health is unclear, widespread exposure necessitates further consideration of their potential reproductive toxicity.

KEYWORDS:

Disinfectants; Fertility; Implantation; Ovulation; Quaternary ammonium compounds; Reproduction; Sperm counts

PMID:
26582257
DOI:
10.1016/j.reprotox.2015.10.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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