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Artif Organs. 2016 May;40(5):470-9. doi: 10.1111/aor.12587. Epub 2015 Nov 19.

Hypothermia During Cardiopulmonary Bypass Increases Need for Inotropic Support but Does Not Impact Inflammation in Children Undergoing Surgical Ventricular Septal Defect Closure.

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Department of Congenital Heart Disease/Pediatric Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
Department of Anesthesiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, Deutsches Herzzentrum Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Germany.


Minimizing the systemic inflammatory response caused by cardiopulmonary bypass is a major concern. It has been suggested that the perfusion temperature affects the inflammatory response. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the effects of moderate hypothermia (32°C) and normothermia (36°C) during cardiopulmonary bypass on markers of the inflammatory response and clinical outcomes (time on ventilator) after surgical closure of ventricular septal defects. During surgical closure of ventricular septal defects under cardiopulmonary bypass, 20 children (median age 4.9 months, range 2.3-38 months; median weight 7.2 kg, range 5.2-11.7 kg) were randomized to a perfusion temperature of either 32°C (Group 1, n = 10) or 36°C (Group 2, n = 10). The clinical data and blood samples were collected before cardiopulmonary bypass, directly after aortic cross-clamp release, and 4 and 24 h after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass. Time on ventilation as primary outcome did not differ between the two groups. Other clinical outcome parameters like fluid balance or length of stay in the intensive care were also similar in the two groups. Compared with Group 2, Group 1 needed significantly higher and longer inotropic support (P < 0.001). In Group 1, two infants had junctional ectopic tachycardia, and another had a pulmonary hypertensive crisis. Perfusion temperature did not influence cytokine release, organ injury, or coagulation. Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature does not influence time on ventilation or inflammatory marker release. However, in the present study, with a small patient cohort, patients operated under hypothermic bypass needed higher and longer inotropic support. The use of hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in infants and children should be approached with care.


Cardiopulmonary bypass; Hypothermia; Inflammation; Ventricular septal defect

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