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Malar J. 2015 Nov 18;14:464. doi: 10.1186/s12936-015-0981-z.

Insecticide resistance profile of Anopheles gambiae from a phase II field station in Cové, southern Benin: implications for the evaluation of novel vector control products.

Author information

1
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK. corine.ngufor@lshtm.ac.uk.
2
Centre de Recherches Entomologiques de Cotonou, Cotonou, Benin. corine.ngufor@lshtm.ac.uk.
3
Pan African Malaria Vector Research Consortium, London, UK. corine.ngufor@lshtm.ac.uk.
4
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK. raphaelnguessan@yahoo.fr.
5
Centre de Recherches Entomologiques de Cotonou, Cotonou, Benin. raphaelnguessan@yahoo.fr.
6
Pan African Malaria Vector Research Consortium, London, UK. raphaelnguessan@yahoo.fr.
7
Centre de Recherches Entomologiques de Cotonou, Cotonou, Benin. laurenjos2010@yahoo.fr.
8
Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK. krishanthi.subramaniam@lstmed.ac.uk.
9
Centre de Recherches Entomologiques de Cotonou, Cotonou, Benin. abibatho@yahoo.fr.
10
Centre de Recherches Entomologiques de Cotonou, Cotonou, Benin. Fongnikin@live.fr.
11
Centre de Recherches Entomologiques de Cotonou, Cotonou, Benin. akogbetom@yahoo.fr.
12
Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK. david.weetman@lstmed.ac.uk.
13
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK. mark.rowland@lshtm.ac.uk.
14
Pan African Malaria Vector Research Consortium, London, UK. mark.rowland@lshtm.ac.uk.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Novel indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) products aimed at improving the control of pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors have to be evaluated in Phase II semi-field experimental studies against highly pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes. To better understand their performance it is necessary to fully characterize the species composition, resistance status and resistance mechanisms of the vector populations in the experimental hut sites.

METHODS:

Bioassays were performed to assess phenotypic insecticide resistance in the malaria vector population at a newly constructed experimental hut site in Cové, a rice growing area in southern Benin, being used for WHOPES Phase II evaluation of newly developed LLIN and IRS products. The efficacy of standard WHOPES-approved pyrethroid LLIN and IRS products was also assessed in the experimental huts. Diagnostic genotyping techniques and microarray studies were performed to investigate the genetic basis of pyrethroid resistance in the Cové Anopheles gambiae population.

RESULTS:

The vector population at the Cové experimental hut site consisted of a mixture of Anopheles coluzzii and An. gambiae s.s. with the latter occurring at lower frequencies (23 %) and only in samples collected in the dry season. There was a high prevalence of resistance to pyrethroids and DDT (>90 % bioassay survival) with pyrethroid resistance intensity reaching 200-fold compared to the laboratory susceptible An. gambiae Kisumu strain. Standard WHOPES-approved pyrethroid IRS and LLIN products were ineffective in the experimental huts against this vector population (8-29 % mortality). The L1014F allele frequency was 89 %. CYP6P3, a cytochrome P450 validated as an efficient metabolizer of pyrethroids, was over-expressed.

CONCLUSION:

Characterizing pyrethroid resistance at Phase II field sites is crucial to the accurate interpretation of the performance of novel vector control products. The strong levels of pyrethroid resistance at the Cové experimental hut station make it a suitable site for Phase II experimental hut evaluations of novel vector control products, which aim for improved efficacy against pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors to WHOPES standards. The resistance genes identified can be used as markers for further studies investigating the resistance management potential of novel mixture LLIN and IRS products tested at the site.

PMID:
26581678
PMCID:
PMC4652434
DOI:
10.1186/s12936-015-0981-z
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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