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Sci Total Environ. 2016 Feb 1;543(Pt A):140-6. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.11.029. Epub 2015 Nov 12.

Assessing bisphenol A (BPA) exposure risk from long-term dietary intakes in Taiwan.

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Department of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan, ROC.
Department of Public Health, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 40242, Taiwan, ROC.
Department of Public Health, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 40242, Taiwan, ROC; Department of Family and Community Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40242, Taiwan, ROC. Electronic address:


Dietary intake is the major bisphenol A (BPA) exposure route in humans, and is a cause of BPA-related adverse effects. The large-scale exposure risk of humans to BPA through dietary sources in Taiwan is less well studied. The aim of this study was to assess the average daily dose (ADD) and hazardous quotient (HQ) of BPA exposure risk from long-term dietary intake of BPA, as well as BPA concentrations in different age-sex groups in Taiwan. We reanalyzed the BPA concentrations of regular daily food sources (rice, poultry, livestock, seafood, protein, fruits, and vegetables) and used a national dietary survey to estimate the contribution of variance to ADDs and potential human health effect for different age-sex groups. This study found that the daily consumption of chicken, pork/beef, and seafood were estimated to be 33.77 (Male)/22.65 (Female), 91.70 (M)/66.35 (F), and 54.15 (M)/40.78 (F) g/day, respectively. The highest BPA ADD was found in the 6-9 years age group (95% CI=0.0006-0.0027 mg/kg-bw/day), whereas the lowest BPA ADD was in the ≥65 years age group (0.0002-0.0020 mg/kg-bw/day). Based on the latest EFSA guidelines (0.004 mg/kg-bw/day), the 97.5 percentile HQ of BPA intake in different age-sex groups in Taiwan posed no risks through dietary intake. However, a combination of multiple exposure routes and long-term exposure in specific populations may be of concern in the future.


Average daily dose (ADD); Bisphenol A (BPA); Dietary exposure; Hazard quotient (HQ); Ingestion risk; Probability

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