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J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Dec;100(12):4612-20. doi: 10.1210/jc.2015-2923. Epub 2015 Nov 18.

Social Jetlag, Chronotype, and Cardiometabolic Risk.

Author information

1
Department of Psychology (P.M.W., T.W.K., S.B.M.), University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213; and Department of Psychiatry (B.P.H.) and Department of Heart and Vascular Institute (M.F.M.), University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213.

Abstract

CONTEXT:

Shift work, which imposes a habitual disruption in the circadian system, has been linked to increased incidence of cardiometabolic diseases, and acute circadian misalignment alters various metabolic processes. However, it remains unclear whether day-to-day circadian dysregulation contributes to these risks beyond poor sleep and other behavioral characteristics.

OBJECTIVE:

Individuals differ in circadian phase preference, known as chronotype, but may be constrained by modern work obligations to specific sleep schedules. Individuals experience social jetlag (SJL) due to a habitual discrepancy between their endogenous circadian rhythm and actual sleep times imposed by social obligations. Here, we examined whether chronotype and/or SJL associate with components of cardiovascular disease risk beyond the known effects of sleep disturbances, poor health behaviors, and depressive symptomatology.

DESIGN:

Participants were healthy, midlife adults who worked part- or full-time day shifts (n = 447; mean age, 42.7 [range, 30-54] y; 53% female; 83% white). Chronotype was assessed with the Composite Scale of Morningness. SJL was quantified as the difference (in minutes) between the midpoints of actigraphy-derived sleep intervals before work vs non-workdays.

RESULTS:

Multiple regression analyses showed that SJL related to a lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level, higher triglycerides, higher fasting plasma insulin, insulin resistance, and adiposity (P < .05), even after adjustment for subjective sleep quality, actigraphy-derived sleep characteristics, depressive symptomatology, and health behaviors. Evening chronotype associated with lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol after adjustment for covariates.

CONCLUSION:

Our findings suggest that a misalignment of sleep timing is associated with metabolic risk factors that predispose to diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

PMID:
26580236
PMCID:
PMC4667156
DOI:
10.1210/jc.2015-2923
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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