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PLoS One. 2015 Nov 16;10(11):e0142831. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0142831. eCollection 2015.

Human MAMLD1 Gene Variations Seem Not Sufficient to Explain a 46,XY DSD Phenotype.

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Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Clinical Research, University Children's Hospital Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
Pediatric Endocrinology Research Unit. Vall d'Hebron Institut de Recerca, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, CIBERER (Center for Biomedical Research on Rare Diseases), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Barcelona, Spain.
Pediatric Endocrinology, Hospital Infantil La Fe, Valencia, Spain.
Pediatric Endocrinology, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Spain.
Pediatric Endocrinology, Hospital Materno-Infantil, Málaga, Spain.
Pediatric Endocrinology, Corporació Parc Taulí, Hospital de Sabadell, Sabadell, Spain.
Pediatric Endocrinology, Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena, Sevilla, Spain.
Pediatric Urology, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Spain.


MAMLD1 is thought to cause disordered sex development in 46,XY patients. But its role is controversial because some MAMLD1 variants are also detected in normal individuals, several MAMLD1 mutations have wild-type activity in functional tests, and the male Mamld1-knockout mouse has normal genitalia and reproduction. Our aim was to search for MAMLD1 variations in 108 46,XY patients with disordered sex development, and to test them functionally. We detected MAMDL1 variations and compared SNP frequencies in controls and patients. We tested MAMLD1 transcriptional activity on promoters involved in sex development and assessed the effect of MAMLD1 on androgen production. MAMLD1 expression in normal steroid-producing tissues and mutant MAMLD1 protein expression were also assessed. Nine MAMLD1 mutations (7 novel) were characterized. In vitro, most MAMLD1 variants acted similarly to wild type. Only the L210X mutation showed loss of function in all tests. We detected no effect of wild-type or MAMLD1 variants on CYP17A1 enzyme activity in our cell experiments, and Western blots revealed no significant differences for MAMLD1 protein expression. MAMLD1 was expressed in human adult testes and adrenals. In conclusion, our data support the notion that MAMLD1 sequence variations may not suffice to explain the phenotype in carriers and that MAMLD1 may also have a role in adult life.

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