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Plant Physiol. 2016 Jan;170(1):294-309. doi: 10.1104/pp.15.01280. Epub 2015 Nov 17.

RNA Recognition Motif-Containing Protein ORRM4 Broadly Affects Mitochondrial RNA Editing and Impacts Plant Development and Flowering.

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Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (X.S., A.G., M.R.H., S.B.).
Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (X.S., A.G., M.R.H., S.B.)


Plant RNA editosomes modify cytidines (C) to uridines (U) at specific sites in plastid and mitochondrial transcripts. Members of the RNA-editing factor interacting protein (RIP) family and Organelle RNA Recognition Motif-containing (ORRM) family are essential components of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) editosome. ORRM2 and ORRM3 have been recently identified as minor mitochondrial editing factors whose silencing reduces editing efficiency at ∼6% of the mitochondrial C targets. Here we report the identification of ORRM4 (for organelle RRM protein 4) as a novel, major mitochondrial editing factor that controls ∼44% of the mitochondrial editing sites. C-to-U conversion is reduced, but not eliminated completely, at the affected sites. The orrm4 mutant exhibits slower growth and delayed flowering time. ORRM4 affects editing in a site-specific way, though orrm4 mutation affects editing of the entire transcript of certain genes. ORRM4 contains an RRM domain at the N terminus and a Gly-rich domain at the C terminus. The RRM domain provides the editing activity of ORRM4, whereas the Gly-rich domain is required for its interaction with ORRM3 and with itself. The presence of ORRM4 in the editosome is further supported by its interaction with RIP1 in a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. The identification of ORRM4 as a major mitochondrial editing factor further expands our knowledge of the composition of the RNA editosome and reveals that adequate mitochondrial editing is necessary for normal plant development.

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