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Malar J. 2015 Nov 16;14:456. doi: 10.1186/s12936-015-0986-7.

Malaria prevalence in Bata district, Equatorial Guinea: a cross-sectional study.

Author information

1
Reference Centre for Epidemics Control of Equatorial Guinea (CRCE), Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, Malabo, Equatorial Guinea. pncogo@crce-guinea.org.
2
National Centre of Tropical Medicine, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII) C/Sinesio Delgado, 6-Pabellón 13, 28029, Madrid, Spain. zherrador@isciii.es.
3
The Spanish Tropical Diseases Research Network (RICET in Spanish), Madrid, Spain. zherrador@isciii.es.
4
National Centre of Tropical Medicine, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII) C/Sinesio Delgado, 6-Pabellón 13, 28029, Madrid, Spain. mromay@isciii.es.
5
The Spanish Tropical Diseases Research Network (RICET in Spanish), Madrid, Spain. mromay@isciii.es.
6
Department of Preventive Medicine, University Hospital of Albacete, Albacete, Spain. mlycarrasco@gmail.com.
7
Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, Malabo, Equatorial Guinea. glorianseng@yahoo.es.
8
National Centre of Tropical Medicine, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII) C/Sinesio Delgado, 6-Pabellón 13, 28029, Madrid, Spain. pberzosa@isciii.es.
9
The Spanish Tropical Diseases Research Network (RICET in Spanish), Madrid, Spain. msanmor@msn.com.
10
Instituto Universitario de Enfermedades Tropicales y Salud Pública de Canarias, Universidad de la Laguna, La Laguna, Canary Islands, Spain. msanmor@msn.com.
11
Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, Malabo, Equatorial Guinea. riloharivas@yahoo.es.
12
National Centre of Tropical Medicine, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII) C/Sinesio Delgado, 6-Pabellón 13, 28029, Madrid, Spain. paparicio@isciii.es.
13
The Spanish Tropical Diseases Research Network (RICET in Spanish), Madrid, Spain. paparicio@isciii.es.
14
The Spanish Tropical Diseases Research Network (RICET in Spanish), Madrid, Spain. bvallada@ull.es.
15
Instituto Universitario de Enfermedades Tropicales y Salud Pública de Canarias, Universidad de la Laguna, La Laguna, Canary Islands, Spain. bvallada@ull.es.
16
National Centre of Tropical Medicine, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII) C/Sinesio Delgado, 6-Pabellón 13, 28029, Madrid, Spain. abenito@isciii.es.
17
The Spanish Tropical Diseases Research Network (RICET in Spanish), Madrid, Spain. abenito@isciii.es.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Malaria has traditionally been a leading public health problem in Equatorial Guinea. After completion, in September 2011, of the integrated set of interventions against malaria launched by the Global Fund Malaria Programme in the mainland area, the epidemiological situation of malaria remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence rate of malaria and associated factors based on the rapid diagnosis test (RDT) in Bata district, in order to provide evidence that will reinforce the National Malaria Control Programme.

METHODS:

From June to August 2013, a representative cross sectional survey using a multistage, stratified, cluster-selected sample was carried out in urban zones and rural villages from Bata district. Data on socio-demographic, health status and malaria-related behaviours was collected. Malaria diagnosis was performed by RDT. Bivariate and multivariable statistical methods were employed to assess malaria prevalence and its association with different factors.

RESULTS:

Prevalence of malaria was higher in rural settings (58.9 %; CI 95 % 55.2-62.5 %) than in the sampled urban communities (33.9 %; CI 95 % 31.1-36.9 %). Presence of anaemia was also high, especially in rural sites (89.6 vs. 82.8 %, p < 0.001). The analyses show that a positive RDT result was significantly associated with age group, the most affected age range being 13 months-14 years old. Other significant covariates were ethnic group (only in urban sites), number of adults living in the house (only in rural villages) previous history of fever, anaemia (only in urban sites) and sleeping under a bed net. Moreover, those who never slept under a bed net were two times more likely to have malaria.

CONCLUSION:

The prevalence of malaria was high in Bata district, especially in rural villages. The National Programme to fight malaria in Equatorial Guinea should take into account the differences found between rural and urban communities and age groups to target appropriately those worst affected. The findings of this study will assist in planning and undertaking regional policy and other preventive initiatives.

PMID:
26573911
PMCID:
PMC4647797
DOI:
10.1186/s12936-015-0986-7
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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