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Environ Monit Assess. 2015 Dec;187(12):751. doi: 10.1007/s10661-015-4983-7. Epub 2015 Nov 14.

Arsenic-induced genotoxicity in Nile tilapia (Orechromis niloticus); the role of Spirulina platensis extract.

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Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, 71516, Assiut, Egypt.
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, 35516, Egypt.
Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, 35516, Egypt.


Arsenic (As) is one of the most relevant environmental global single substance toxicants that have long been regarded as a carcinogenic and genotoxic potential. In this respect, we evaluated the cytogenetic effect of arsenic exposure in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), in terms of erythrocyte alteration, apoptosis, and induction of micronuclei. Spirulina platensis (SP) is a filamentous cyanobacterium microalgae with potent dietary phytoantioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancerous properties supplementation. The protective role of Spirulina as supplementary feeds was studied in Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) against arsenic-induced cytogenotoxicity. Four groups were assigned as control group (no SP or As), As group (exposed to water-born As in the form of NaAsO2 at 7 ppm), SP1 (SP at 7.5% + As at the same level of exposure), and SP2 (SP at 10% + As at the same level of exposure). As-treated group had a significant increase in all cytogenetic analyses including erythrocyte alteration, apoptosis, and induction of micronuclei after 2 weeks with continuous increase in response after 3 weeks. The combined treatment of Spirulina at two different concentrations of 7.5 and 10% had significantly declined the induction of erythrocyte alteration, apoptosis, and micronuclei formation induced by arsenic intoxication.


Detoxification; Micronucleus frequency; Nile tilapia; RBC abnormalities; Sodium arsenite; Spirulina platensis extract

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