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Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2016;33(1):105-18. doi: 10.1080/19440049.2015.1108524. Epub 2015 Nov 16.

Pesticide residues in leafy vegetables, stalk and stem vegetables from South Korea: a long-term study on safety and health risk assessment.

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a Agro-Fishery Products Inspection Center , Health and Environment Research Institute of Gwangju , Gwangju , Korea.


South Korea has a unique food culture. South Koreans enjoy wrapping meat and eating or making kimchi (traditionally fermented Korean food) and eating using raw leafy vegetables, stalk and stem vegetables. Therefore, there is a high chance of being exposed to pesticide residues of vegetables. The objective of this study was to investigate pesticide residues in leafy vegetables, stalk and stem vegetables from South Korea. A total of 8496 samples were mainly collected from Gwangju and Jeonnam area (the largest production region of leafy vegetables, stalk and stem vegetables) in South Korea from 2010 to 2014. A total of 230 pesticides were used for multi-residue analysis of pesticides. Among 8496 samples, 61 different pesticides (1029 times) were detected in 890 samples, of which 118 samples (1.4%) exceeded the Korea maximum residue limits (MRLs). Samples exceeding the MRLs were mostly found in leafy vegetables (brassica lee ssp. namai, leafy lettuce, spinach, perilla leaves, crown daisy, marsh mallow, aster scaber, pimpinella brachycarpa) and Chinese chive. Procymidone, dimethomorph and azoxystrobin were the most frequently found pesticides. A risk assessment of pesticides exceeding the MRLs was evaluated by calculating the estimated daily intake (EDI) and the acceptable daily intake (ADI). The ratio of EDI to ADI was 0.003-30.4%.


Pesticide residues; South Korea; leafy vegetables; risk assessment; stalk and stem vegetables

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