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Mediators Inflamm. 2015;2015:946509. doi: 10.1155/2015/946509. Epub 2015 Oct 19.

Crossing the Vascular Wall: Common and Unique Mechanisms Exploited by Different Leukocyte Subsets during Extravasation.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular Biomedicine, Center for Investigation and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute (Cinvestav), 07360 Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
2
Molecular Cardiology Research Institute, Tufts Medical Center and Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA.
3
Centre for Microvascular Research, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts & The London SMD, Queen Mary University of London, London EC1M 6BQ, UK.
4
Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1066 CX Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Abstract

Leukocyte extravasation is one of the essential and first steps during the initiation of inflammation. Therefore, a better understanding of the key molecules that regulate this process may help to develop novel therapeutics for treatment of inflammation-based diseases such as atherosclerosis or rheumatoid arthritis. The endothelial adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are known as the central mediators of leukocyte adhesion to and transmigration across the endothelium. Engagement of these molecules by their leukocyte integrin receptors initiates the activation of several signaling pathways within both leukocytes and endothelium. Several of such events have been described to occur during transendothelial migration of all leukocyte subsets, whereas other mechanisms are known only for a single leukocyte subset. Here, we summarize current knowledge on regulatory mechanisms of leukocyte extravasation from a leukocyte and endothelial point of view, respectively. Specifically, we will focus on highlighting common and unique mechanisms that specific leukocyte subsets exploit to succeed in crossing endothelial monolayers.

PMID:
26568666
PMCID:
PMC4629053
DOI:
10.1155/2015/946509
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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