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Animal. 2016 Mar;10(3):478-89. doi: 10.1017/S1751731115002487. Epub 2015 Nov 16.

The biosecurity status and its associations with production and management characteristics in farrow-to-finish pig herds.

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1Veterinary Epidemiology Unit,Department of Reproduction, Obstetrics and Herd Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,Ghent University,Salisburylaan 133,9820 Merelbeke,Belgium.
2Department of Animal Health and Antimicrobial Strategies,National Veterinary Institute,SVA,SE-751 89 Uppsala,Sweden.
4SAFOSO AG,Waldeggstrasse 1,CH-3097 Liebefeld,Switzerland.
6Field Station for Epidemiology,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover,Büscheler Straße 9,D-49456 Bakum,Germany.
5ONIRIS,UMR 1300 BioEpAR,BP40706,F-44307 Nantes,France.
3Department of Clinical Sciences,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences,P.O. Box 7054,SE-750 07 Uppsala,Sweden.


Disease prevention through biosecurity measures is believed to be an important factor for improvement of the overall health status in animal production. This study aimed at assessing the levels of implementation of biosecurity measures in pig production in four European Union (EU) countries and to describe possible associations between the biosecurity level and farm and production characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 232 farrow-to-finish pig herds in Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden between December 2012 and December 2013. The biosecurity status in each of these herds was described and quantified by using the risk-based scoring tool Biocheck.UGentTM ( Production and management characteristics, obtained from the herd management system and by interviewing the farmer, were analysed for their association with the biosecurity level. A causal path was designed to study statistical associations. The results showed that there was substantial room for improvement in the biosecurity status on many pig farms. Significant differences (P<0.01) both in internal and external biosecurity levels were observed between countries. The external biosecurity status, combining all measures taken to prevent disease introduction into the herd, was highest in Germany and lowest in France. The internal biosecurity status, combining all measures taken to prevent within herd disease transmission, was highest in Sweden and lowest, with a large variation, in Belgium. External biosecurity scores were in general higher compared to internal biosecurity scores. The number of pathogens vaccinated against was significantly associated with internal biosecurity status, suggesting an overall more preventive approach towards the risk of disease transmission. A higher external biosecurity was associated with more weaned piglets per sow per year. Furthermore also the weaning age and the mortality till weaning were highly associated with the number of weaned piglets per sow per year. The negative association observed between the biosecurity level and the estimated frequency of treatment against certain clinical signs of disease as a proxy for disease incidence is consistent with the hypothesis that a higher biosecurity level results in healthier animals. These findings promote an improved biosecurity status at pig farms and are of relevance in the discussion on alternative ways to keep animals healthy with a reduced necessity of antimicrobials; Prevention is better than cure!


alternative to antimicrobial agents; biosecurity; causal path; disease prevention; pig production

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